CS201: Data Structures and Algorithms

Assignment 1

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Introduction

For your second programming assignment, you are to implement a infix expression calculator using stacks and queues. For all lines of output, there should be no initial whitespace and no trailing whitespace (except for a newline), unless otherwise indicated. A single space should separate tokens in a line of output, unless otherwise directed.

I/O

Your executable must be named matilda. The executable reads in a series of variable declarations (possibly empty) and an expression from a file. It will produce, on stdout, the result of the computation. Here is an example invocation:
    $ echo 999 \* 8888 \; > items
    $ matilda items
    8879112.000000
    $
where $ is the system prompt. The file to be processed (items in the example) is a free-format text file. That is, the numbers, variables, operators, and semicolons found within are separated by arbitrary amounts of whitespace (i.e. spaces, tabs, and newlines) and every line ends with a newline.
The executable must handle the following options:
option example action
-v matilda -v give author's name and exit
-i matilda -i FILENAME print the original input to evaluating the expression
-p matilda -p FILENAME print the postfix conversion of the infix expression
before evaluating the expression
-b matilda -b FILENAME print the BST holding variable values
before evaluating the expression

If multiple options are given, print the -i output before the -p output and print the -p output before the -b output. Those options can come in any order.

Here are some example invocations using options:
    $ matilda -v
    Alyssa P. Hacker
    $ cat testfile
    var a
       = 3 ;
    var b = 4.0 ;
    b * a
     ;
    $ matilda -i -b testfile
    var a = 3 ;
    var b = 4.0 ;
    b * a ;
    [a=3.000000 [b=4.000000]]
    12.000000
    $ matilda -p testfile
    b a *
    12.000000
    $
Here is a program that features some handy-dandy option-handling code that you may use verbatim without credit: options.c

Expressions

Expressions will be composed of literals (integers and real numbers) variables (tokens beginning with an alphabetic character), operators ( = + - * / % ^), and parentheses. All tokens will be surrounded by whitespace. For example, the expression: (x+1)*2; is illegal and should be written as ( x + 1 ) * 2 ; to be proper.

A token in the input stream can be identified as follows:
Note, the equals sign in a variable declaration is just syntactic sugar and can otherwise be ignored. The operators have precedence in increasing order from assignment to plus to minus to times to divides to modulus to exponentiation. Parentheses override precedence. All operators are left associative:
    echo "5 + 3 * ( 4 - 2 ) - 1 ;" > input
    $ matilda -p input
    5 3 4 2 - * 1 - +
    10.000000
    $

Declarations

Variables are declared with the var keyword:
    $ echo "var x = 3.2 ;" > testvar
    $ echo "x ;" >> testvar
    $ matilda -b testvar
    [x=3.200000]
    3.200000
    $
All declarations will appear first. The initializer in a variable declaration will be a number.

Variables and their values should be stored in a binary search tree for later retrieval during the processing of the postfix expression. A variable will only be declared once, so the binary search tree will contain unique keys. The specification for a binary search tree can be found here: http://beastie.cs.ua.edu/cs201/assign-bst.html.

Reading the input

You may find the Art and Science of Programming - C Edition scanner to be useful for this task:
    wget troll.cs.ua.edu/ACP-C/scanner.c
    wget troll.cs.ua.edu/ACP-C/scanner.h
You can read a token with the scanner and then examine the token to see what kind of value it is. You may not use scanf to read into a fixed-length character array.

Error checking

The only error checking you must perform is detecting the use of a variable that was not declared:
    $ echo "x + 3 ;" > badvar
    $ matilda badvar
    variable x was not declared
    $
Display the error message as soon as you detect the undeclared variable. After printing the error message on standard out, you should exit the program with a zero exit code. Other than this one exception concerning undeclared variables your program will only be tested with valid input. Normally, you would print error messages to stderr rather than stdout and exit with a non-zero exit code, but for testing purposes, you should print to stdout and use a zero exit code.

You must follow the C programming style guide for this project: http://beastie.cs.ua.edu/cs201/cstyle.html.

Compilation details

You must implement your calculator algorithm in portable C99. You must provide a makefile which responds properly to the commands:
    make 
    make test
    make clean
The make command compile the matilda executable, which should compile cleanly with no warnings or errors at the highest level of error checking (the -Wall and -Wextra options.). The make test command should test your program and the make clean command should remove object files and the executable. Here are examples (your files, other than your modules from assignment 0 and your BST module, may differ in number and name):
    $ make clean
    rm -f real.o string.o da.o cda.o queue.o stack.o scanner.o matilda.o process.o bst.o matilda
    $ make
    gcc -Wall -Wextra -g -std=c99 -c real.c
    gcc -Wall -Wextra -g -std=c99 -c string.c
    gcc -Wall -Wextra -g -std=c99 -c da.c
    gcc -Wall -Wextra -g -std=c99 -c cda.c
    gcc -Wall -Wextra -g -std=c99 -c queue.c
    gcc -Wall -Wextra -g -std=c99 -c stack.c
    gcc -Wall -Wextra -g -std=c99 -c scanner.c 
    gcc -Wall -Wextra -g -std=c99 -c matilda.c 
    gcc -Wall -Wextra -g -std=c99 -c process.c
    gcc -Wall -Wextra -g -std=c99 -c bst.c
    gcc -Wall -Wextra -g -std=c99 -o matilda real.o string.o da.o cda.o queue.o stack.o scanner.o matilda.o process.o bst.o -lm
    $ make
    make: `matilda' is up to date.
    $ make test
    running: matilda -p -b -i mytestfile
    var b = 5 ;
    var a = 3 ;
    var c = 2 ;
    ( a * b + c ) / ( 4 - 1 ) ;
    a b * c + 4 1 - /
    [[a=3.000000] b=5.000000 [c=2.000000]]
    5.666667
    $
The compilation command must name the executable matilda. The You may develop on any system you wish but your program will be compiled and tested on a Linux system. Only the most foolish students would not thoroughly test their implementations on a Linux system before submission.

Documentation

All code you hand in must be attributed to its authors. Comment sparingly but well. Do explain the purpose of your program. Do not explain obvious code. If code is not obvious, consider rewriting the code rather than explaining what is going on through comments.

Grading

Grading will proceed as with assignment 0. In addition to testing your program, your binary search tree module and your matilda module will be tested individually.

Submission

To submit assignments, you need to install the submit system.
You will hand in (electronically) your code for the preliminary assessment and for final testing with the commands:
    submit cs201 lusth test1
    submit cs201 lusth assign1
Make sure you are in the same directory as your makefile when submitting. The submit program will bundle up all the files in your current directory and ship them to me. Thus it is very important that only the source code and any testing files be in your directory. This includes subdirectories as well since all the files in any subdirectories will also be shipped to me. You may submit as many times as you want before the deadline; new submissions replace old submissions. Old submissions are stored and can be used for backup.