Songlib: modes

written by: Song Li Buser

Revision Date: March 2, 2017

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Musical modes

Musical modes provide a structure for generating nice sounding chords. There are seven modern musical modes:

The Ionian, Lydian, and Mixolydian modes are considered major modes and have a brighter and more cheery feel than the other listed modes, which are considered minor modes.

To read more about modes, see Musical Modes on Wikipedia.

Using modal chords

It is not actually necessary to understand modes to use them as a composition tool in songlib. By setting a particular mode, songlib allows you to generate modal chords compatible with that mode quite easily. The trichord generating function is named c, with the first argument specifying the chord number:

c(1,...), c(2,...), c(3,...), c(4,...), c(5,...), c(6,...), and c(7,...)

A trichord is simply a chord of three notes. If you are building a song in the key of C, then the c(1,...) chord has a base (or root) note of C, the c(2,...) chord has a root note of D, and so on through E, F, G, A, and B. If you are using the key of E, the c(1,...) chord has a root note of E, the c(2,...) chord has a root note of F#, and so on.

Thus, an Ionian riff in the key of D might look like the following in songlib:

    setKey(D);
    setMode(IONIAN);

    for (i = 0; i < 4; ++i)
        {
        c(1,H,guitar,octave);
        c(4,H,guitar,octave-1);
        c(5,H,guitar,octave-1);
        c(5,H,guitar,octave-1);
        c(4,Hd,guitar,octave-1);
        }

For simplicity, we will sometimes abbreviate the call c(1,...) as c1, c(2,...) as c2, and so on.

Notice the absence of F# in the above riff. This is because songlib figures out the root note and the other notes in the chord automatically when the c function is used.

Chord progressions

When using the modal system, not only does songlib figure out which notes go with which chord, you also get, for free, a bullet-proof way to compose songs using chord progressions. A chord progression is simply two or more chords in a row. Some very smart people have figured out which chords sound 'ice' next to each other. Here are the general purpose charts for designing your own nice-sounding chord progressions.

For the Ionian or major mode, the chord progression generating chart looks like:

To generate a chord progression, you can start at any bullet. Say we start at c1. Then we go to the next bullet. It says any chord, so we can go to any bullet. Let's go to the c2 or c4 bullet and choose c4. Again, we go to the next bullet and choose c5. Finally, we return to c1. It is common for major chord progressions to end at c1. Our little journey yielded the progression:

c1 -> c4 -> c5 -> c1

For the harmonic minor mode, the generating chart is slightly different:

Note that this chart introduces a new chord, cM7, which stands for a Major c7. In the harmonic minor mode, c7 is a a diminished chord, so this chart features two versions of c7, one major and one diminished. The next section covers forcing chords in one mode to behave as if in another mode.

Playing chords out of mode

No matter the mode, some of the seven possible chords are major chords, some are minor, some are augmented, and some are diminished chords. Songlib figures this out automatically, so composing using the modal system is quite easy. However, the modal system described above is a little too confining. For example, in Ionian mode, c1 is a major chord. But perhaps you wish to throw in a minor version of c1. To do so, simply call the cm(1,...) function instead of c(1,...).

    setKey(D);
    setMode(IONIAN);

    for (i = 0; i < 4; ++i)
        {
        cm(1,H,guitar,octave);
        c(4,H,guitar,octave-1);
        c(5,H,guitar,octave-1);
        c(5,H,guitar,octave-1);
        c(4,Hd,guitar,octave-1);
        }

In Ionian mode, the three major chords are c1, c4, and c5, and the three minor chords are c2, c3, and c6. The last chord, c7, is a diminished chord. In Aeolian mode, the major chords are c3, c6, and c7, while c1, c4, and c5 are minor chords and c2 is a diminished chord. All chords have major, minor, augmented, and diminished versions, obtained by appending the appropriate letter to the chord name; the major, minor, augmented, and diminished versions are named, cM, cm, ca, and cd, respectively.

Thus for the progression generating chart for the harmonic minor mode, shown in the previous section, the cM7 placeholder would be implemented by a call to cM(7,...). Since c7 is a diminished chord in the harmonic minor mode, it could be implemented as:

    chord(beats,instrument,octave,C,+3,+6,(int) 0);

A diminished chord lowers both the second note and the third note one semitone each. A call to the harmonic minor chord cM(7,...) in the key of C is equivalent to the following call to chord:

    chord(beats,instrument,octave,C,+4,+7,(int) 0);

Augmenting a chord generally means to raise the third note in the chord one semitone. For example, the Aeolian c7 chord is a major chord, so calling ca(7,...) in that mode in the key of C is equivalent to:

    chord(beats,instrument,octave,C,+4,+8,(int) 0);

Degrees

In music theory, the degree of a note indicates its index with respect to the root note in the scale. The modal system of songlib uses a diatonic scale having seven notes. In the key of C, the index of C is 1, D is 2, E is 3 and so on. In the key of D, the index of D is 1, E is 2, F# is 3 and so on.

The degree function returns the root note of the associated modal chord. For example, if you are in the key of C, then degree(1) returns a C, degree(2) returns a D, and so on.

Since c1 is a major chord in Ionian mode, it is therefore equivalent, under this scenario, to all of the following calls:

    chord(H,guitar,octave,C,+4,+7,(int) 0);
    chord(H,guitar,octave,degree(1),+4,+7,(int) 0);
    maj(H,guitar,octave,C);
    maj(H,guitar,octave,degree(1));

when in the key of C. Likewise, c2 is a minor chord and is thus equivalent to all these calls:

    chord(H,guitar,octave,D,+3,+7,(int) 0);
    chord(H,guitar,octave,degree(2),+3,+7,(int) 0);
    min(H,guitar,octave,D);
    min(H,guitar,octave,degree(2));

Of course, you can always use chord and hardwire the notes, but then it is difficult to change the key of your composition. By using the degree function with chord, it is easy to change the key, but you have to keep track of which chords sound appropriate, i.e. when to play major and when to play minor chords. Songlib's modal system takes care of all these problems automatically.

Modes and their chords

Note that every mode uses some combination of major and minor chords in its scale. For example, the Ionian mode actually uses the chords:

maj/degree(1), min/degree(2), min/degree(3), maj/degree(4), maj/degree(5), min/degree(6), and dim/degree(7)

so in Ionian mode, c1 is equivalent to maj/degree(1), and so on.

The following table lists the types of chords used for every mode:

Mode

Chord #
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Ionian maj min min maj maj min dim
Dorian min min maj maj min dim maj
Phrygian min maj maj min dim maj min
Lydian maj maj min dim maj min min
Mixolydian maj min dim maj min min maj
Aeolian min dim maj min min maj maj
Locrian dim maj min min maj maj min
Melodic Minor min min aug maj maj dim min
Harmonic Minor min dim aug min maj maj dim

 
To use Aeolian mode, for example, you could use the chords:

min/degree(1), dim/degree(2), maj/degree(3), min/degree(4), min/degree(5), maj/degree(6), and maj/degree(7)

Of course, songlib figures out which chords and degrees to use if you stick with calls to c(1,...) through c(7,...).

Note the addition of two more modes in the table, the Melodic and Harmonic Minors. Furthermore, there are three alias modes, Major (which is the same as Ionian) and Minor and Natural Minor (which are aliases for Aeolian).

The setMode function is used to set the mode. To set the desired mode, capitalize the mode name and substitute underscores for spaces. For example, to set the Harmonic Minor mode, make this call:

    setMode(HARMONIC_MINOR);

To change the mode within a song, simply call setMode with the new mode. Any chords generated subsequently will use the new mode.

Flattened and sharpened chords

Sometimes, it is desirable to call a chord in the next lower (or next higher) key. One can flatten and sharpen the modal chords for this task. The chords are obtained by calling the cf function (for flatten) and the cs function (for sharpen) to the modal chord name. For example, suppose your songlib program is in E-Phrygian:

    setKey(E);
    setMode(PHRYGIAN);

and you wish to play a c3 chord in the key of D#. You would make a call similar to this:

    cf(3,beats,instrument,octave);

To play a c4 chord in the key of F, the call would look similar to:

    cs(4,beats,instrument,octave);

Seventh chords

The songlib library also has functions for generating modal seventh chords. A seventh chord has an additional note one third higher than the highest note in a trichord, yielding a total of four notes, although, sometimes, the next to the highest note in the chord is omitted.

The seventh chord functions are exactly the same as the basic modal trichord functions, but the c7 function is called instead of the c function. To provide more control over seventh chords, songlib provides these additional functions:

Common name

technical name modal function semitone deltas
Major 7th Major/Major cM7 4, 7, 11
Minor 7th Minor/Minor cm7 3, 7, 10
Augmented 7th Augmented ca7 4, 8, 11
Diminished 7th Diminished/Diminished cd7 3, 6,  9
Dominant 7th Major/Minor cD7 4, 7, 10

 
Recall that the degree function can be used to automatically derive the correct pitch. In Ionian mode, the seventh chord with a root of degree 3 would be a minor chord. Thus, in the non-modal system, one would call:

    chord(beats,instrument,octave,degree(3),+3,+7,+10,(int) 0);

Using the modal system, the call would be:

    c7(3,beats,instrument,octave);

in Ionian mode and

    cm7(3,beats,instrument,octave);

in modes where c3 is not a minor chord.

If the current key is the key of C and the mode is Ionian, the notes in both the above chords would be E, G, B, and D. Note that there are three semitones between E and G, seven semitones between E and B, and ten semitones between E and D.

Extended chords

The songlib system provides, ninth, eleventh, and thirteenth chords as well as seventh chords. Those functions are c9, c11, and c13, respectively. One can also flatten and sharpen these chords with the functions c9f, c9s, c11f, c11s, c13f, and c13s.

With ninth chords, songlib omits the 3rd highest note. With eleventh chords, the 4th and 2nd highest notes are omitted, while with thirteenth chords, the 5th, 3rd, and 2nd highest notes are omitted. The next section discusses how to establish finer control over the modal system, including the omission of notes.

Fine control of the modal chord system

All the modal chords are based upon a general purpose function named cchord. If you wish to control the modal chord system at a lower level, you can call the cchord function directly. The function has the following signature:

    cchord(chordNumber,duration,instrument,octave,tweaks);

where chordNumber is selected from the set {1,2,3,4,5,6,7} and and tweaks is an string of adjustments the sharpen,flatten, or omit the individual notes in the chord. For example, the c chord is simply a wrapper to the call:

    cchord(chordNumber,duration,instrument,octave,"xxx");

In the tweaks string, the following encoding is used:

character meaning
- corresponding note is omitted
x corresponding note is left alone
X corresponding note is raised one octave
y same as x
Y corresponding note is lowered one octave
n corresponding note is the successor note in the scale/mode
N line n, but one octave higher
m like n, but two notes up
m like m, but one octave higher
l like n, but three notes up
L like l, but one octave higher
p corresponding note is the predecessor note in the scale/mode
P like p, but one octave down
q like p, but two notes down
Q like q, but one octave lower
r like p, but three notes down
R like r, but one octave lower
s corresponding note is adjusted up one semitone
S corresponding note is adjusted up two semitones
u corresponding note is adjusted up three semitone
U corresponding note is adjusted up four semitones
b corresponding note is adjusted down one semitone
B corresponding note is adjusted down two semitones
d corresponding note is adjusted down three semitone
D corresponding note is adjusted down four semitones

Thus, the chord c7 is a wrapper to the call:

    cchord(chordNumber,duration,instrument,octave,"xxxx");

If c4 is a major chord, then it can be tweaked into a dominant seventh chord using the following call to cchord:

    cchord(4,duration,instrument,octave,"xxxp");

which flattens the seventh note one step down the scale. If c4 is a minor chord, it can be tweaked into an augmented seventh chord with the call:

    cchord(4,duration,instrument,octave,"xnnx");

sharpening the middle two notes of the chord.

One should generally stick with tweaks from the set:

    X Y n N m M l L p P q Q r R

Applying a pleasing sounding tweak using semitone shifts in one mode will likely sound unpleasant if the mode or key is changed.

In general, the cchord function is called directly if you wish to change the notes that are omitted in an extended chord. For example, a c9 chord is a wrapper to:

    cchord(chordNumber,duration,instrument,octave,"xx-xx");

This tweaks string omits the middle note of the chord; this note is known as the fifth. Music theorists use what seems, at first, a strange terminology for naming the notes of the chord. The following table gives the note names that correspond to the position in the tweaks string:

string position note name
1 the root
2 the third
3 the fifth
4 the seventh
5 the ninth
6 the eleventh
7 the thirteenth

If you wish to omit the third instead of the fifth, you would call cchord like this:

    cchord(chordNumber,duration,instrument,octave,"x-xxx");

Other modal chords

There are a few other modal chord functions of note:

function result
ic for example, ic(5,2,beats,inst,octave) which plays the lower two notes of chord 5 an octave higher - the larger the second argument, the more notes are inverted(raised an octave)
cpower plays a power chord; the middle note is replaced by the root note at one higher octave
cpower2 like cpower, but the middle note is played as well
csus2 plays a suspended chord; the middle note is replaced by the major second
csus4 plays a suspended chord; the middle note is replaced by the perfect fourth
cquart plays a quartal chord (stacked fourths)
b plays a broken chord (arpeggio)

All these chords have the same arguments as c, except the broken chord function b. With a broken chord, the individual notes are played sequentially or in parallel, according to a set of given patterns, rather than all in parallel. For example, the call:

    b(1,H,piano,octave,"-x-","x-x",(char *) 0);

would play the middle note of the chord followed by the root and the top note played simultaneously. The duration of each pattern is the duration of the chord divided by the number of patterns. In the above example, each pattern is played for a quarter note. Note that tweaks can be used in a broken chord pattern. Also, an "unbroken" broken chord is equivalent to cchord. The following calls are equivalent:

    b(3,W,piano,octave,"xxx",(char *) 0);
    cchord(3,W,piano,octave,"xxx");
    c(3,W,piano,octave);

You can adjust the amplitude each pattern in a broken chord with a call to setBrokenAmplitudes:

    setBrokenAmplitudes(1.0,0.5,DX);
    b(1,H,piano,octave,"-x-","x-x",(char *) 0);

Each argument to setBrokenAmplitudes is a factor with which the current amplitude is multiplied before the pattern is played. In this example, the first pattern "-x-" is played at the current amplitude while the second pattern "x-x" is played at half the current amplitude. The factors sent to setBrokenAmplitudes persist until the next call to setBrokenAmplitudes.

Playing single notes in the modal system

You can play the individual notes in the current key, consistent with the current mode. These single note playing functions have the form:

    n(chordNumber,duration,instrument,octave,offset)

The offset is chosen from the set {0..6}. These numbers are the equivalent of do, re, mi, fa, so, la, and ti. For example, the c1 function is equivalent to playing the following notes simultaneously:

    n(1,H,piano,octave,0);
    n(1,H,piano,octave,2);
    n(1,H,piano,octave,4);

You can flatten a note by calling nf instead of n. Likewise, you can sharpen a note by calling the ns function. For example, the chord cm is equivalent to the following notes played simultaneously:

    n(1,H,piano,octave,0);
    nf(1,H,piano,octave,2);
    n(1,H,piano,octave,4);

A power chord omits the third and adds in the root note at an octave higher. You can play a power chord by combining calls to cchord and n. Here is one form of a power chord:

    cchord(chordNumber,duration,instrument,octave,"x-x");
    backwards(duration);
    n(chordNumber,duration,instrument,octave+1,0);

This form has been encapsulated in the cpower function,

Finally, you can retrieve the actual note in a modal chord by using the getcnote function. These two calls are equivalent:

    n(3,H,piano,5);
    play(H,piano,getcnote(3,5));

lusth@cs.ua.edu